The word "ferman" comes
from the Persian word "fermudan" meaning a command or order.
Used by the Ilhans after adopting Islam, this word then enterd the
diplomatic life of the Ottoman Empire.
The meaning of "ferman" is a command, on whatever matter, issued by the
Sultan and bearing the tugra, which
in itself is referrred to as "Alemet-i Serif".
Traditionally written in Divan style calligraphy, Fermans were compesed of
the following parts:
The top part consisted of the invitation, which is a prayer followed by
the tugra below and the text of ferman at the
lowest part. These fermans contain the names and titles of the addressee
with word of appreciation, the introduction
part, reason of ferman, the order of Sultan, explanation, warnings, word
of insistence and the date.
The ferman which bear the handwriting of Sultan are called "Ferman-i
Today, both antique fermans and their imitations raise great interest
among people. The copies of fermans which
are required to be written with the Divan calligraphy style are prepared
by master calligraphers using inks
and pens identical to those used ind the original version.
(...from the booklet of