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The word "ferman" comes from the Persian word "fermudan" meaning a command or order.

Used by the Ilhans after adopting Islam, this word then enterd the diplomatic life of the Ottoman Empire.
The meaning of "ferman" is a command, on whatever matter, issued by the Sultan and bearing the tugra, which
in itself is referrred to as "Alemet-i Serif".

Traditionally written in Divan style calligraphy, Fermans were compesed of the following parts:
The top part consisted of the invitation, which is a prayer followed by the tugra below and the text of ferman at the
lowest part. These fermans contain the names and titles of the addressee with word of appreciation, the introduction
part, reason of ferman, the order of Sultan, explanation, warnings, word of insistence and the date.

The ferman which bear the handwriting of Sultan are called "Ferman-i Humayun".

Today, both antique fermans and their imitations raise great interest among people. The copies of fermans which
are required to be written with the Divan calligraphy style are prepared by master calligraphers using inks
and pens identical to those used ind the original version.

(...from the booklet of ADN)

some Ferman samples from the ADN booklet


Illimination - Tugra - Ferman - Marbling - Engraving - Calligraphy - Miniature - View of Turkey


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